Astigmatism is a condition in which the surface of cornea is irregular. Normally, the surface of the cornea is smooth and round, like the shape of a round ball (such as a basketball), which is equally round in every direction has no astigmatism. In contrast, a football, which is not equally round in every direction, has significant astigmatism. A clear, smooth, round cornea gives optimal vision. However, when the surface of the cornea becomes irregular, vision becomes impaired.
There are three ways to correct astigmatism surgically:
Limbal relaxing incisions
Limbal relaxing incisions are made (usually in pairs) near the outer edge of the cornea in order to make the contour of the cornea rounder.
Limbal relaxing incisions are typically made at the time of cataract surgery, but it can be done in any eye with astigmatism.
Limbal relaxing incisions are limited to correct mild astigmatism.
Toric intraocular lens
Toric intraocular lens is a special type of intraocular implant that can compensate the for the astigmatism in the cornea.
Toric intraocular lens has to be inserted into the eye in conjunction with the removal of cataract at the time of cataract surgery.
Toric intraocular lens can correct mild to moderate astigmatism.
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Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider.